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CREATE STAGE

Introduced or updated: v1.2.339

Creates an internal or external stage.

Syntax

-- Internal stage
CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] STAGE [ IF NOT EXISTS ] <internal_stage_name>
[ FILE_FORMAT = (
FORMAT_NAME = '<your-custom-format>'
| TYPE = { CSV | TSV | NDJSON | PARQUET | ORC } [ formatTypeOptions ]
) ]
[ COPY_OPTIONS = ( copyOptions ) ]
[ COMMENT = '<string_literal>' ]

-- External stage
CREATE STAGE [ IF NOT EXISTS ] <external_stage_name>
externalStageParams
[ FILE_FORMAT = (
FORMAT_NAME = '<your-custom-format>'
| TYPE = { CSV | TSV | NDJSON | PARQUET | ORC } [ formatTypeOptions ]
) ]
[ COPY_OPTIONS = ( copyOptions ) ]
[ COMMENT = '<string_literal>' ]

externalStageParams

externalStageParams ::=
's3://<bucket>[<path/>]'
CONNECTION = (
<connection_parameters>
)

For the connection parameters available for accessing Amazon S3-like storage services, see Connection Parameters.

note

To create an external stage on Amazon S3, you can also use an IAM user account, enabling you to define fine-grained access controls for the stage, including specifying actions such as read or write access to specific S3 buckets. See Example 3: Create External Stage with AWS IAM User.

FILE_FORMAT

See Input & Output File Formats for details.

copyOptions

copyOptions ::=
[ SIZE_LIMIT = <num> ]
[ PURGE = <bool> ]
ParametersDescriptionRequired
SIZE_LIMIT = <num>Number (> 0) that specifies the maximum rows of data to be loaded for a given COPY statement. Default 0Optional
PURGE = <bool>True specifies that the command will purge the files in the stage if they are loaded successfully into table. Default falseOptional

Examples

Example 1: Create Internal Stage

This example creates an internal stage named my_internal_stage:

CREATE STAGE my_internal_stage;

DESC STAGE my_internal_stage;

name |stage_type|stage_params |copy_options |file_format_options |number_of_files|creator |comment|
-----------------+----------+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------+---------------+------------------+-------+
my_internal_stage|Internal |StageParams { storage: Fs(StorageFsConfig { root: "_data" }) }|CopyOptions { on_error: AbortNum(1), size_limit: 0, max_files: 0, split_size: 0, purge: false, single: false, max_file_size: 0, disable_variant_check: false }|Parquet(ParquetFileFormatParams)| 0|'root'@'127.0.0.1'| |

Example 2: Create External Stage with AWS Access Key

This example creates an external stage named my_s3_stage on Amazon S3:

CREATE STAGE my_s3_stage URL='s3://load/files/' CONNECTION = (ACCESS_KEY_ID = '<your-access-key-id>' SECRET_ACCESS_KEY = '<your-secret-access-key>');

DESC STAGE my_s3_stage;
+-------------+------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------+
| name | stage_type | stage_params | copy_options | file_format_options | comment |
+-------------+------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------+
| my_s3_stage | External | StageParams { storage: S3(StageS3Storage { bucket: "load", path: "/files/", credentials_aws_key_id: "", credentials_aws_secret_key: "", encryption_master_key: "" }) } | CopyOptions { on_error: None, size_limit: 0 } | FileFormatOptions { format: Csv, skip_header: 0, field_delimiter: ",", record_delimiter: "\n", compression: None } | |
+-------------+------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------+

Example 3: Create External Stage with AWS IAM User

This example creates an external stage named iam_external_stage on Amazon S3 with an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user.

Step 1: Create Access Policy for S3 Bucket

The procedure below creates an access policy named databend-access for the bucket databend-toronto on Amazon S3:

  1. Log into the AWS Management Console, then select Services > Security, Identity, & Compliance > IAM.
  2. Select Account settings in the left navigation pane, and go to the Security Token Service (STS) section on the right page. Make sure the status of AWS region where your account belongs is Active.
  3. Select Policies in the left navigation pane, then select Create policy on the right page.
  4. Click the JSON tab, copy and paste the following code to the editor, then save the policy as databend_access.
{
"Version": "2012-10-17",
"Statement": [
{
"Sid": "AllObjectActions",
"Effect": "Allow",
"Action": [
"s3:*Object"
],
"Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::databend-toronto/*"
},
{
"Sid": "ListObjectsInBucket",
"Effect": "Allow",
"Action": [
"s3:ListBucket"
],
"Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::databend-toronto"
}
]
}

Step 2: Create IAM User

The procedure below creates an IAM user named databend and attach the access policy databend-access to the user.

  1. Select Users in the left navigation pane, then select Add users on the right page.
  2. Configure the user:
    • Set the user name to databend.
    • When setting permissions for the user, click Attach policies directly, then search for and select the access policy databend-access.
  3. After the user is created, click the user name to open the details page and select the Security credentials tab.
  4. In the Access keys section, click Create access key.
  5. Select Third-party service for the use case, and tick the checkbox below to confirm creation of the access key.
  6. Copy and save the generated access key and secret access key to a safe place.

Step 3: Create External Stage

Use the access key and secret access key generated for the IAM user databend to create an external stage.

CREATE STAGE iam_external_stage url = 's3://databend-toronto' CONNECTION =(aws_key_id='<your-access-key-id>' aws_secret_key='<your-secret-access-key>' region='us-east-2');

Example 4: Create External Stage on Cloudflare R2

Cloudflare R2 is an object storage service introduced by Cloudflare that is fully compatible with Amazon's AWS S3 service. This example creates an external stage named r2_stage on Cloudflare R2.

Step 1: Create Bucket

The procedure below creates a bucket named databend on Cloudflare R2.

  1. Log into the Cloudflare dashboard, and select R2 in the left navigation pane.
  2. Click Create bucket to create a bucket, and set the bucket name to databend. Once the bucket is successfully created, you can find the bucket endpoint right below the bucket name when you view the bucket details page.

Step 2: Create R2 API Token

The procedure below creates an R2 API token that includes an Access Key ID and a Secret Access Key.

  1. Click Manage R2 API Tokens on R2 > Overview.
  2. Click Create API token to create an API token.
  3. When configuring the API token, select the necessary permission and set the TTL as needed.
  4. Click Create API Token to obtain the Access Key ID and Secret Access Key. Copy and save them to a safe place.

Step 3: Create External Stage

Use the created Access Key ID and Secret Access Key to create an external stage named r2_stage.

CREATE STAGE r2_stage
URL='s3://databend/'
CONNECTION = (
REGION = 'auto'
ENDPOINT_URL = '<your-bucket-endpoint>'
ACCESS_KEY_ID = '<your-access-key-id>'
SECRET_ACCESS_KEY = '<your-secret-access-key>');
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